Reflect on your learning during the week on the Following topic: Short-Term Memory, Long-Term Memory, Sensory Information Storage, Intelligence Table, Emotional Intelligence. Then, in your own words, write two to three paragraphs on what this week meant to you both personally and professionally. What did you find most interesting? How will you use this information in your career now and in the future? Be sure to discuss what you learned from your reading (lectures, textbook, supplemental articles), discussions with your peers and instructors, and any assignments you completed throughout the week.
Learning on the memory and the types of memory, I have come to appreciate the way the memory and the human brain works. I have learnt the working of the short term and long-term memory. In my personal life, I have learnt to use the mind to work in my favor. If I have something that I need to change in ,y life, I just use the power of meditation and repetition to make some habit in the short term to go to the long term memory. Learning about the short term and long term has also helped me in my profession as the hard theories and concepts can be absorbed by making use of this strategy. Sensory information storage are used to store information that has been got from the common senses.
I also learnt about emotional intelligence and how it can be tamed. The rational mind and emotional intelligence are the two minds that need to be controlled. Emotional intelligence leads one to do things which are borne out of emotions. To make rational decisions, one has to control the emotional intelligence and make use of rational mind.
Activity 2. Review the following commands, filling in the purpose and the available options.
Used to make it possible to integrate words from an input file for words and also enables calculation of numbers that are within a file.
-F (for field separator), -v(used for assigning a variable), -f(used to locate a program file)
Used for giving a file another name or for changing the location of the file
-backup(make a backup of all the files in the destination), -b(same as backup but it does not allow the use of arguments), -i(interactive), -u(used to update), -v(verbose),
Used for copying a file from one place to another place
-a(used to archive), -backup(used to backup all files like in the destination directory), -b(used for backup but does not allow arguments), -d(never follow the symbolic links), -f(force an existing destination file to be opened), -i(interactive), -p(used to preserve the attribute that exists).
Used for moving a filed permanently or moving the file permanently
-b(used to specify the size in bytes of which to output), -c(characters to output), -d(delimiter), -f(fields to include), sort
Used for sorting some lines of text or files
-b(ignore lines), -d(dictionary order), -f(ignore the case), -g(sort numerically), -i(disregard the nonprinting), -m(sorting using months),-n(sort using numeric),-r(reverse).
Used to change the timestamps
-a(used to change only the time of access), -c(used to specify that there is no creation of new files), -d(used for date string – use the date instead of the current time), -f(ignored).
Explain in no less than 200 words the phase of designing a new file processing application?
One of the requirements when one is designing a new file application is concentrating on the design. This is because the design phase will entail defining the information that the application will be required to produce when it is finished. The design is also important because of the fact that it shows how information are organized in the logical structure.
The first step in the design is to define the fields and the records which will be required. This will produce the layout of the record. Each record has fields which are recognized by making use of the data type that is found in that field. The data type can either be numeric characters, alphanumeric or nonnumeric at all. The file record should be designed in such a manner that it stores only those fields in the files which conforms to the initial requirements.
The files are then linked together so that files which share a common field can be joined. Another phase in the design is to look for was in which the files can be joined. One of the main objectives of relational database systems is to be able to have flexibility so that it can get information from different files.
Reflect on your learning during the week in the following outcomes: Demonstrate ability to create and manage directories, users, permissions, and processes And The Use commands and instructions within the Shell. Then, in your own words, write two to three paragraphs on what this week meant to you both personally and professionally. What did you find most interesting? How will you use this information in your career now and in the future? Be sure to discuss what you learned from your reading (lectures, textbook, supplemental articles), discussions with your peers and instructors, and any assignments you completed throughout the week.
This week has been a great one for me. What with the Linux commands that I have been able to learn. My main goal is to become a system administrator. This week, I saw myself going towards realizing this dream. System administration are required to manage the privileges that different users have. Being able to manage the files and folders and assigning privilege and the required security measures is a good step towards attaining the dream of system administration.
Security is a major issue of concern for many organizations. There is therefore a need to be able to manage security using privilege management and management of directories and files. This week has been a tough and a worthy one as I am able to manage the different types of users that are there in an organization.
Activity 4 ( Quiz )
1. UNIX/Linux are not case sensitive. A) True B) False
2. The less command scrolls only down, whereas more enables you to scroll down and up. A) True B) False
3. As a general rule, the swap partition should be the same size as the amount of RAM in your computer. A) True B) False
4. The rm -r command can be used to delete a directory that is not empty. A) True B) False
5. Files that contain nonprintable characters, such as machine instructions, are called binary files. A) True B) False
6. In vi, a tilde (~) precedes all line-oriented commands. A) True B) False
7. UNIX/Linux store data, such as letters, product records, or vendor reports, in flat ASCII files. A) True B) False
8. When you use cat to combine two files into a third file, the first line of the output contains the first line of the first file followed by the first line of the second file. A) True B) False
9. You can use the < operator to redirect a command’s output from the screen to a file. A) True B) False 10. The pipe operator can connect several commands on the same command line. A) True B) False 11. Currently, the ____ project, a joint effort of experts from industry, academia, and government, is working to standardize UNIX. A) POSIX B) BSD C) ANSI D) Ubuntu 12. The UNIX/Linux ____ command displays the system date, which the system administrator maintains. A) today B) sysdate C) system D) date 13. In the Linux Bash shell, the ____ key combination moves the cursor to the previous letter. A) Ctrl+b B) Alt+d C) Alt+l D) Ctrl+a 14. To log out of UNIX/Linux (Bourne, Korn, or Bash shells) you can enter exit on the command line or press __. A) Ctrl+l B) Ctrl+g C) Ctrl+x D) Ctrl+d 15. A ____ is used to refer to the user’s home directory. A) dot (.) B) dollar sign ($) . C) forward slash (/) D) tilde (~) 16. The head and tail commands, allow you to view the first few or last few lines of a file (____ lines by default). A) five B) ten C) fifteen D) twenty 17. You can create a __ partition to hold files that are created temporarily, such as files used for printing documents (spool files) and files used to record monitoring and administration data, often called log files. A) /tmp B) /usr C) /var D) /aux 18. The ____ directory contains configuration files that the system uses when the computer starts. A) /boot B) /bin C) /dev D) /etc 19. The ____ command is used to create a new directory. A) cdir B) cd C) mkdir D) mk 20. Computer files containing nothing but printable characters are called ____ files. A) text B) binary C) document D) ASCII 21. Compiled and interpreted files that can be run are called ____ program files. A) binary B) executable C) assembly D) dynamic 22. In UNIX/Linux, text files and binary files are considered to be ____ files. A) executable B) document C) regular D) dynamic 23. System administrators and programmers refer to standard input as ____. A) sin B) stin C) stdin D) standardin 24. The command > accountsfile ____. A) deletes de file accountsfile B) is not valid in UNIX/Linux systems C) displays the contents of the file accountsfile on the screen D) creates an empty file called accountsfile
25. When you no longer need a directory, you can use command ____ to remove it. A) xtree B) rmdir C) dldir D) deltree
26. The ____ option of the find command displays files that have been changed within the last n minutes. A) -min n B) -cmin n C) -nmin n D) -mmin n
27. The join command is used to associate information in two different files on the basis of a common field or _ in those files. A) index B) link C) column D) key
28. The ____ command locates identical lines within two identically sorted files. A) diff B) sed C) uniq D) comm.
29. To append new lines in sed, you must use the ____ command. A) a\ B) -a C) \a D) >a
30. The ____ function within the awk command is used to format output. A) out B) outln C) print D) printf
31. A(n) _________desktop___________ computer system, or PC, is usually a stand-alone machine, such as a desktop or laptop computer.
32. Computer storage devices such as hard disks are called __external storage__________________ devices.
33. A(n)? - is a special character that can stand for any other character or, in some cases, a group of characters.
34. You can use the __________printf__________ (line print) shell command to print a file from vi.
35. Manipulation and transformation commands alter and transform extracted information into useful and appealing formats.
36. Match each item with a statement below.
A. terminal. B. domain. C. network D. shell. E. mainframe F. host G. server F. host. G. server. H. root. I. kernel device that has a monitor and keyboard, but no CPU (A)
37. Match each item with a statement below.
A. /lib. B. /tmp. C. /var. D. /root. E. /usr. F. /sbin. G. /media. H. /proc. I. /mnt
houses kernel modules, security information, and the shared library images (A)
holds subdirectories that often change in size (C)
temporary place to store data during processing cycle (B)
38. Match each item with a statement below.
A. Ctrl+g. B. Alt+w. C. dd. E. dot (.) . F. / . G. $. H. x . I. k
in Emacs, cancels the current command (A)
39. Match each item with a statement below.
A. -c . B. –name. C. –r. D. > E. –d F. –I G. -u H. paste I. -t
this option prevents the touch command from creating a file, if it does not already exist (C)
40. Match each command with a statement below.
A. cut B. diff C. pr D. sed E. comm. F. grep G. sort H. tr I. wc
compares and selects differences in two files (B)
formats and prints (F)
selects columns (fields)
41. What is a peer-to-peer network?
This is a group of computers which have been connected together without having to go through a server.
42. The concept of layered components that make up an operating system also originated with UNIX. Briefly describe this concept as it applies to UNIX/Linux systems.
The operating system consist of a kernel, some servers and user-level libraries. The kernel provides services to the operating system by using set procedures and can be invoked by use of system calls.
43. What is the man program? What argument(s) does it accept?
The man program is used to format and show the online manual pages. One can specify the pages to work on by specifying the section in the command. It accepts, pager, path, section_list,
44. Why would you want to set file permissions?
File permissions are used to manage the access to the files. File permissions are required so that security of the files can be effected. There are files which are supposed to be accessed by the administrators.
45. What is the diff command used for?
It is used to compare two files and get their differences.