This study was carried out by MHE (Managed Health Executive) so as to forecast the future of the healthcare system’s future which is changing dramatically. This was done by carrying out a survey amongst readers of MHE. Approximately 650 readers took part in the 2011 State of the Industry Survey. This was carried out electronically using electronic invitations. The readers were from various sectors of the industry and included health plan consultants, providers, administrative firms, managers and employers in pharmaceutical and disease management companies.
The survey revealed that the readers were generally more pessimistic regarding the future than in the past. This attitude originates from the uncertainty surrounding the impact of healthcare reforms in the sector. A demonstration of this is the PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) which was passed in March 2010 and the upcoming implementation of ICD-10 in 2013. There are a large number of decisions which need to be made, all requiring extensive groundwork and collaboration with the private sector. This means that stakeholders have no choice but to wait patiently and watch the events unfold.
The results of this study imply that the stakeholders in the reforms understand that the impact of these reforms will be clear when they occur and will include increased transparency and fewer resources available to them. Managers will need to leverage data and manage relationships in order to succeed. This study was well done; no missing variables were noted which would have led to different results. The study was comprehensive because it addressed all elements of health care reforms being considered including PPACA, ICD-10 and Medicare. It also considers responses from all stakeholders. This article relates to my topic because it addresses the issues facing the implementation of ICD-10 and the advantages which will be gained from its implementation.
Roelen C. et al., (2010). Recurrence of Medically Certified Sickness Absence According to Diagnosis: A Sickness Absence Register Study. J Occupy Rehabil 20 pp 113-121.
This study was carried to explore the incidence of sickness (in accordance with diagnosis ) absence recurring. Sickness absence has been identified as a major problem since it is associated with social insurance, long-term disability and reduced economic activity. The study was conducted by analyzing data of sickness absence registered at the Dutch Post and Telecom Company. Data from a total of 137, 172 employees was analyzed.
It was found that musculoskeletal disorders recorded the highest rate of recurrence in 1,000 person-years (118.7). This was followed by mental disorders (80.4). Musculoskeletal disorders recorded a median time of sickness absence of 409 days (37%) while mental disorders accounted for 328 days (21%). It was also found that unskilled workers were associated with a higher risk of recurring sickness absence. The study results implied that it was necessary to hasten the return-to-work of employees who had been sick-listed because of mental or musculoskeletal disorders and to put in measures to reduce the recurrence of absence due to sickness.
This study faced limitations in terms of sample variety. All the people analyzed worked for the same company hence operated within similar work environment. The study would have been more authoritative and is results possibly different if it analyzed employees working in different companies. The study was biased because it analyzed data from Dutch Post and Telecom only and it can be argued that any results obtained were relevant only to the company. This article relates to the chosen topic because the physicians used to certify illness amongst employees used ICD-10 classification.
Waghorn, G. AND Chant D. (2007).Receiving Treatment and Labor Force Activity in a Community Survey of People with Anxiety and Affective Disorders. J Occupy Rehabil 17 pp 623-640
The study was carried out to investigate benefits of treatment for anxiety and depression disorders. The study investigated relationships (first and second order) among labor-force activity receiving treatment and two (self reported) indicators of performance at work. This was done at a population level because previous studies of expected benefits were not carried out at the population level. The hypothesis of this study was that receiving treatment for these disorders was associated with better work performance and heightened labor force activity.
Data for this study was collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. This was done using multistage sampling techniques. The sample was made up of 37,580 individuals of working age. To carry out a secondary analysis, a multiple regression of binary logistics was done. The results indicated that the receipt of treatment was associated with none/ reduced participation with regards to the labor force. It was also associated negatively with work performance. These results revealed that an unintended effect of the anxiety treatment being reduced participation in the work force needed to be investigated.
While this study was conducted in both rural and urban Australia, it did not explore sparsely populated and remote regions. However, statistical adjustments when carrying out the statistical analysis were made to accommodate this. This factor therefore did not affect the outcome of the study. This research was conducted in a scientific and comprehensive manner and its results can be deemed as reliable and authoritative. This is evidenced in the manner in which the sample was handled- statistical allowances were made to account for remote regions. This article was used to because it demonstrated how the ICD-10 classification was used to grade anxiety and depression disorders.
Hasin, D. (2003). Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders. Alcohol Research and Health 27.1 pp5-17.
This study was conducted to explore the classification of disorders associated with alcohol use. The validity and reliability of the classification systems like ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) were investigated. The study was carried out through a comprehensive literature review of relevant information from scholarly journals and books on research studies carried out globally to assess the validity and reliability of the modern definitions of alcohol abuse and dependence. From this review, a multi method comparison was done on the classification systems.
When assessed hierarchically, reliability of classification of dependence on alcohol was lower than dependence. The study implied that more work was needed to clearly define alcohol dependence and abuse. It recommended that better definition be explored in the preparation for DSM-V. The article was well written and comprehensively researched. This is shown by the literature review which consisted of studies conducted in different regions of the world. The work is therefore reliable. This article is related to the topic because it discusses the efficiency of ICD-10 classification and other classification systems.
Palmer, S. et al., (2005). Risk of Congenital Anomalies after the Opening of Landfill Sites. Environmental Health Perspectives 113.10 pp 1362-1365
This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of congenital anomalies associated with landfills in Wales. The study aimed to determine whether there were increased incidences of congenital anomalies after the opening of landfills in comparison to before the landfills were opened. The study was carried out in a small area with expected congenital defects in regions within two kilometers of the sites. Births from 1983-1997 were investigated using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. Data was taken and subjected to logistic regression which was fitted to all births in all the area within 4 kilometers radius of the sites. I was found that the expected ratios of congenital defects before landfills were opened was lower (0.87) than after landfills were opened (1.21).
Surveillance data of congenital malformations collected for the period 1998-2000 revealed a standard risk ratio (1.04). The results indicated that it was not easy to make inferences due to biases and lack of information of exposure at individual levels. It, however, recommended further surveillance of congenital anomalies and chemical exposure studies. This study was limited because it was biased and the cases were not fully ascertained. There was also no information on the level of exposure each individual had faced. Other factors that would have affected the study like lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were not were not adequately explored. The article therefore was not authoritative but would act as a pointer to other researchers on the need for further research in this field. It also related to the topic as it gave one more example of how useful the ICD-10 classification was in the classification of congenital anomalies.