Research Proposal On Evolution Of Science Technology In Western Culture

Published: 2021-06-22 00:49:17
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Category: Science, Medicine, World

Type of paper: Essay

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Thesis statement
Modern research in science can be traced to the 16 and 17th centuries. However, the most astounding discoveries were made from 18th century to the mid-20th century. Achievements made in science and technology (especially in the fields of production, transport and communications), gave birth to the industrial revolution. Industrial growth was experienced not only in capitalist states, but also in the communist Russia and other backward countries like Mexico. These changes have come to be associated with the modern global civilization. The rapid progress of science and technology has been associated with the enormous use of raw materials that has resulted into depletion of minerals, disruption of natural resources and wanton forests destruction. Such environmental imbalances have threatened the gains made by science and technology. However, the negative experiences are dwarfed by medical and technologies advances, made within the same period, that have positively changed mankind’s economic, social and cultural life.
Connections of the project with the goals of the course
This research is essential in understanding how science and technology has made contributions to humanity (especially in the areas of medicine and technology). This is in line with goals of the course because historians need to go back in time to understand the impact of medical and technological innovations to mankind, and gaps and inconstancies that have not yet been answered. A chronology of the most influential medical and technological innovations made from the 18th century to the mid-20th century would give a historic account of advancements which have brought mankind thus far.
Project Outline
Introduction
It is vital for historians to understand how western civilization was attained through the use of better technologies (Gorman 44). This is specifically in the areas of medicine and technology. This is vital to historians and people (or organizations), interested technology as it may inform on the past trends and potential areas of researching and policy making.
Background
The period between 18th century and the 20th century saw an unprecedented rise in the number of scientific innovations made in world history (Pickstone 74). However, some of the innovations were inconsistent and have had to be improved with time in order to satisfy the ever changing human needs (Stearns 67).
Rationale
The research covers medical and scientific innovations made in the years from the 16th century upto the mid-20th century because this is the era characterized.
Method and design
The project would be carried out through researching on the relevant literature. The list of references to be used is already indicated elsewhere in this paper.
Significance and conclusion
This research would be vital to historians in the medical and technological world, as well as policy makers, as it traces the most vital innovations made from the 18th century to the mid-20th century. Historians would have a chance to see where mankind got it right, and the contribution made to humanity. This could be vital in assessing future trends.
Annotated Bibliography
Lane, Joan. A Social History of Medicine: Health, Healing and Disease in England, 1750-1950. London: Routledge, 2001.Print.
The book gives and insight into the developments in practice of medicine from the industrial ear right through to the mid-20th century. The book explores the evolving relationships between patients and medical practitioners as various scientific discoveries were made. It explores the availability of healthcare to patients. It is necessary to note that the author recognizes the use of local sources as more discoveries were made to cater for the complex needs. It is an engrossing read that offers an insight into the chronology of medical events made before 1950. It is useful for use in research.
Landau, Ralph, Basil Achilladelis and Alexander Scriabine. Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health. Darby, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 1999. Print.
The book explores how innovations in medical technology have made an enormous contribution to humanity. The book traces the five generations of medicine that span from 1800’s to the late 20th century. A specific focus is made into the pharmaceutical industry and research and development made. It is appropriate for it gives the history of science, technology and medicine.
Stearns, Peter N. Western Civilization in World History. London: Routledge, 2003.Print.
The book offers an insight into the history of western civilization. The author gives the context of when civilization began and the areas it spans. The author also mentions on the specific aspects that distinguish the west from the rest of the world. The author also mentions on the interlink age between western civilization and world history.
McClellan, James Edward and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. Baltimore, MA: JHU Press, 2008.Print.
The book gives the relationship between history, science and technology. The authors note that until, recently, governments did not fund research. This arose from the realization that applied science is best invested in in order to come up with improved technologies. Europe, United States arose as leaders in science and innovation. This has made the countries to be technological powers.
Nelson, Richard R. "On the uneven evolution of human know-how." Research Policy (2003): 32 (6), 909-922.
The article explains the reasons for the uneven evolution of knowledge. The author argues that research in science and technology is an ongoing process that never ends. It could be rapid or cumulative depending on the field. The paper explores the advancements made in education and in medicine in order to unravel the mystery of unevenness.
Pickstone, John V. "Working Knowledges Before and After circa 1800: Practices and Disciplines in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine." The History of Science Society (2007): 98 (3), 489-516.
The article offers a histographic analysis of science, technology and medicine. It also offers an insight into the relationship between medicine and science and technology. This includes the revolutions and transformations of biomedicine.
Hughes, Thomas Parke. Human-Built World: How to Think About Technology and Culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2004.Print.
The writer explores the real technology. He goes beyond the idea of computers, military hardware and consumers goods as the measure of technological advancement. The author explores the things that technology has brought to us. It is essential to note that the author defines technology as something that works with the ecological systems; not against it. He shows how technology is laden with human fully, so many inconsistencies. It is sometimes saved by benign deeds and some unintended consequences.
Gorman, Michael E. Scientific and Technological Thinking. London: Routledge, 2005. Print.
The book helps to understand some fundamental breakthroughs, inventions and discoveries. It explores the use of knowledge in the attempt to enhance the probability of making and advancing new discoveries and inventions.
Works Cited
Gorman, Michael E. Scientific and Technological Thinking. London : Routledge, 2005.Print.
Hughes, Thomas Parke. Human-Built World: How to Think About Technology and Culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2004.Print.
Landau, Ralph, Basil Achilladelis and Alexander Scriabine. Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health. Darby, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 1999.Print.
Lane, Joan. A Social History of Medicine: Health, Healing and Disease in England, 1750-1950. London : Routledge, 2001.Print.
McClellan, James Edward and Harold Dorn. Science And Technology in World History: An Introduction. Baltimore, MA: JHU Press, 2008.Prin. t
Nelson, Richard R. "On the uneven evolution of human know-how." Research Policy (2003): 32 (6), 909-922.
Pickstone, John V. "Working Knowledges Before and After circa 1800: Practices and Disciplines in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine." The History of Science Society (2007): 98 (3), 489-516.
Stearns, Peter N. Western Civilization in World History. London : Routledge, 2003.Print.

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