Theory X and Theory Y
In my opinion, I do not see that theory X and theory Y are mutually exclusive. Under ideal or normal conditions, theory X is true. Under the right conditions, theory Y is true. The problem that has always been there is finding or creating the right conditions. However, I agree that there are some people who fall into theory X no matter the prevailing conditions. Douglas McGregor (1960) supports this in his book when he writes that there exist different degrees of both theory X and theory Y. For example, people are motivated by fears about their job security and money. While under ideal conditions, people are motivated by their desire to realize own potential.
The glass-ceiling phenomenon
I strongly believe that glass ceiling still exist. Most women with the aspiration to take senior management positions believe that glass ceiling still exist in career progression. According a survey conducted on 3,000 members of the Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM), 73% of women who responded feel that barriers still exist for women seeking board-level and senior management positions (Mandy Mok Kim, et al. 2009). Males still dominate the senior positions. For example, focusing on the legal profession, it is evident that the percentage of women in top position is small as compared to males. To aggravate matters, the findings from an interview from equal number of women and men with the average age of 43 years 25% of women expected to start their own business venture within ten years compare to 19% of men.
Some of the best practices that organizations can implement in order to ensure that glass ceiling does not deter leadership opportunities for all employees include mentoring women at various management levels to ensure that they follow their dreams. An organization should also include diversity as part of its strategic plan. Organizations should put in place promotion strategies that are not gender-bias and avoiding prejudices of personnel managers.
IBM study: Making change work. Accessed on 14 June 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ol9zYw4Chg&feature=related.
Lockwood, N. R. (2006). Leadership Development: Optimizing Human Capital for Business Success. HR Magazine, 51(12), 1
Mandy Mok Kim, M., Skerlavaj, M., & Dimovski, V. (2009). Is There a 'Glass Ceiling' for Mid-Level Female Managers?. International Journal Of Management & Innovation, 1(1), 1-13.
McGregor, D. (2005). The human side of enterprise, annotated edition. McGraw-Hill.
Michael, M.D, (2012). How managers become leaders. Harvard Business Review, 90(6), 64-72.