- Problem Statement
- Purpose of Study
- Research questions/hypothesis
- Nature of Study
- Content Analysis
- Possible sources
Genital herpes is said to be on the rise. It is a significant public health issue, especially, among teens because being a sexually transmission of the disease. This dissertation seeks to explore the incidence of genital herpes among high school teenagers with in determining the extent to which it is prevalence among this population.
Dissertation Proposal: Public Health-Epidemiology
An Exploration into Incidences of Genital Herpes among
According to the Center for Disease Control statistics herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV- 2) infections have remained relatively stabled over the past decade after previous steep increases prior to the 1990’s. Between the years 1999-2004 there has been a significant decline among teenagers between the ages of 14-17 age groups. However, one in every six Americans between the ages of 14-49 is infected with the virus. Studies show where women and African Americans are the likely high risk groups. The infection affects people with single sex partners as well as those with multiple ones as well (Boyles, 2012).
Importantly, four out of five people with genital herpes go around undiagnosed not being aware that they have the infection. Besides, the infection is incurable. Further studies have shown where there is a strong relationship between genital herpes and HIV infections. Herpes infected people are two times more susceptible to HIV infections than non-infected persons (Boyles, 2012).
Purpose of Study
Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore incidences of genital herpes simplex type 2 infections among high school population across America with the aim of identifying trends in the disease among this isolated group.
Significance of Study
There have been no specific studies investigating the incidences of herpes type 2 viral infections among school high school age students across states much more country. Many sexual of activities occur among high school teens. As such, it is important to establish the epidemiology of herpes infection among this isolated group of individuals.
The original contribution this study will make towards public health epidemiology is that instead of speculations regarding incidences of genital herpes infections among high school teens in America there would be evidence-based data to support any assumptions on the issue. Besides, there have been further assumptions regarding how sexually active these high school teens are. This study on incidences of genital herpes among high school teen across America would also make inferences to the extent of sexual activity occurring among them. In identifying these issues the relevance would enable social planners to develop criteria for social change pertaining to the curricula for sex education in high schools’ across the nation.
Studies have revealed that herpes simplex virus, which is the causative organism for genital herpes mutates from a virus family connected with cold sores, chickenpox, shingles and other diseases. This virus can be transmitted while engaging in vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected person even through there may be no open sores or any other signs and symptoms of infection. Rarely pregnant women transmit the virus to their infants during child birth. However, if transmitted to the new born its effects could be devastating to the health of the child. Statistics show where 1 in every 5 teen is infected with the genital herpes virus (Ribes, Steele, Seabolt, Baker, 2001).
While genital herpes type 2 viruses is the main target of this investigation references to research showing an increase in prevalence of type 1 herpes virus will create an indulgence into the incidence of the virus as well. Studies conducted by a group of researchers headed by Coyle (2003) revealed emerging incidences of type 1 virus among women in Northern Ireland (Coyle et.al, 2003).
Supportively, studies conducted by Mertz (2003) and a group of researchers indicated that while type 2 herpes virus was isolated more frequently, between 1997-2001 type 1 virus appeared to be the dominant organism. These researchers validated their findings by referencing to studies conducted in Norway and Israel during the 1990s. They concluded that ‘the changing epidemiology seems to be primarily affecting adolescents and young adults’ (Mertz et. at, 2003).
Yarber and Parrillo (2002) posit that ‘STD educational strategies can be effective only with part of a larger health education program (human sexuality and family life education) rather than including HIV infection instruction in a biology class’ (Yarber & Parrillo, 2003). The assumption is that behavioral factors inclusive of sexual behavior, drug use, and health care behavior are associated with contacting sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes simplex (Yarber & Parrillo, 2003).
Further assumptions contained in this theory explain that psychological factors such as self-esteem and locus of control are associated with STD risk behavior. Maybe increased earlier sexual activity among high school teens is due to a decrease in the average age of menarche and accessibility to adequate preventative educational services (Yarber & Parrillo, 2003).
What are the estimated new cases of herpes simplex infections discovered yearly among high school students across America within the past decade?
In what age group does the highest prevalence occur?
Is there a prevalence of type 2 genital herpes virus above type 1?
How does education influence sexual behavior in limiting prevalence among high school youths?
Incidences of genital herpes simplex among high school age teens is related to inadequate sexual education, limited access to presentation to sexually transmitted disease services and earlier sexual indulgence due to sooner pubertal changes.
Nature of Study – Mixed Method
This study would encompass a mixed method whereby both quantitative and qualitative explanations of data would be embraced. Quantitative would be employed to test the significance of null hypothesis utilizing chi-quare test of significance. A qualitative approach would be undertaken in discussion while and drawing inferences to determine credibility of findings.
Analysis of data
This would embody a content analysis of data on genital herpes incidences among high school teenage youths across America. Classification of trends will be coded and transferred to a spread sheet for interpretation. Subsequently, findings data would be interpreted based on relevance to research questions and hypothesis.
Boyles, S. (2012). CDC: Genital Herpes Rates Still High. Retrieved on 25th January from
Coyle Pv, O'neill HJ, Wyatt DE, McCaughey C, Quah S, McBride MO (2003 May). "Emergence
of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women
in Northern Ireland". J Clin Virol 27 (1): 22–9
Mertz, G. Rosenthal, L. Stanberry, L. (2003). Is Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Now
More Common than HSV-2 in First Episodes of Genital Herpes? Sex Trans Dis, 30 (10):
Ribes, J. Steele, D. Seabolt, J. Baker, D. (2001). Six-year study of the incidence of herpes in
genital and nongenital cultures in a central Kentucky medical center patient population".
J Clin Microbiol 39 (9): 3321–5.
Yarber, L., & Parrillo, V. (2003). Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases. Sch Health.
Auslander, A. Biro, F., &
, Rosenthal, S.