In this paper, periodization of training is compared with non-periodization and the benefits achieved from periodization are significant in establishing weight-training program. The periodized training of strength involves altering the type of exercise program performed during training to achieve the optimal gain in power and strength.
The paper demonstrates that there have been no significant changes observed in strength and power using Wingate test during one-set training of I RM bench press. However, the periodized training demonstrated significant increase of strength and power using Wingate test in comparison to the one-set training.
T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown. (2007). Conditioning for strength and human performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
This chapter of book discusses the design and specificity of Wingate anaerobic cycle test. It demonstrates that this test is a good overall assessment of lower extremity power, as it requires contribution from all major muscle groups of the lower extremity. The negative aspect of this test is the need of a specialized cycle ergometer that will derive the athlete’s peak and mean power.
Daniel Baker, Greg Wilson and Robert Carlyon. (1994). Periodization:The effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. Journal of Strenght and Conditioning Research , 8 (4), pp. 235-242.
In this research paper, periodization effect on the strength and muscle is assessed through three groups; control, linear and undulating. For I RM bench press, three groups yielded similar results and it was demonstrated that the effect of bench press to increase strength and power is not related to the method of exercise used. It suggests that ‘when the same volume and relative intensity are performed during a short training cycle, subjects of this level achieve similar results regardless f training structure adopted’ .
J. A. Siegel, R. M. Gilders, R.S. Staron and F.C. Hagerman. (2002). Human Muscle Power Output During Upper-and Lower-Body Exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 16 (2), pp. 173-178.
In this paper, positive correlation between 1 RM bench press and lower extremity power is established. This paper states that from bench press, peak power output was at 40 per cent of 1 RM and also demonstrated the difference in power curves of upper and lower extremity power.
Cronin, JB, McNair, PJ and Marshall, RN. (2000). The role of maximal strength and load on initial power production. Med Sci Sport Exer , 32 (10), pp. 1763-9.
In this paper, the function of maximal strength in the production of power is demonstrated through SSC bench press and CO bench press. It was observed that power output was higher in the groups with high RM for both, SSC and CO bench press of 40, 60 and 80 per cent 1 RM loads.
K. Dugan, AWhite, M. Lewing, C. Woodall, M. McAdams, C. Foster, L and Taylor, C. Wilborn. (n.d.). A COMPARISON OF ADAPTATIONS VIA EITHER A LINEAR PERIODIZATION OR AN UNDULATING PERIODIZATION MODEL OF WEIGHT TRAINING. Human Performance Lab, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor .
In this paper, college students were tested for the effect of Wingate peak power assessment and it was found that significant modification in peak anaerobic power and strength occurs during the linear and undulating periodization.
P.S. Kim, J.L. Mayhew and D.F. Peterson. (2002). A Modiﬁed YMCA Bench Press Test as a Predictor of 1 Repetition Maximum Bench Press Strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 16 (3), pp. 440-445.
In this paper, the relationship between bench press test and 1 RM performance is tested. The study found that men perform better on 1 RM test in comparison to women.
R. Beneke, C. Pollmann, I. Bleif, R. Leithäuser and M. Hütler. (n.d.). How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans? EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY , 87 (4-5), pp. 388-392.
This paper establishes the anaerobic activity of Wingate Anaerobic test. Wingate Anaerobic test is deployed in the experiments to anaerobic cycling performance however; the metabolic profile of Wingate Anaerobic test is very limited. This paper analyzes the energetic of wingate test in relation to the working performance and efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate that the wingate cycle test uses energy derived anaerobically than has been established previously and also that the mwchanical efficiency of wingate cycle test is lower than aerobic tests.
Daniel G. Carey and Mark T. Richardson. (2003). CAN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC POWER BE MEASURED IN A 60-SECOND MAXIMAL TEST? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2, pp. 151-157.
In this paper, Wingate anaerobic power test was tested to be correlated to power measures. The study was conducted to establish the efficacy of both anaerobic and aerobic power in 60 second maximal power test. The wingate anaerobic test was found to be positively correlated to the lower maximal power. Moreover the relative mean power, mean power were found to be greater for wingate anaerobic test in comparison to the 75-SEC test and 60-SEC tests.
A M Hunter, A St Clair Gibson, M I Lambert, L Nobbs and T D Noakes. (2003). Effects of supramaximal exercise on the electromyographic signal. Br J Sports Med , 37, pp. 296-99.
In this research paper, Wingate anaerobic test is used to determine the output maximal power and to analyze the athlete’s response to the sub-maximal exercises. This paper compares WAT with other cycling test to analyze that WAT requires low technique and effort in cycling in comparison to other cycling tests.
Bar O, O. (1987). The Wingate anaerobic test: An update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Medicine , 4 (6), pp. 381-94.
This article reviews the characteristics of Wingate anaerobic test and the evolution in the interpretation and protocols of the test which has happened gradually. The reliability of the test and its validity is also discussed. This article states that Wingate anaerobic test performs assessment of anaerobic performance of an exercise and the responses of the subject to sub-maximal and supra-maximal exercise.
A Robertson, J M Watt and S D R Galloway. (2004). Effects of leg massage on recovery from high intensity cycling exercise. Br J Sports Med , 38, pp. 173-176.
In this research paper, the effect of massage of legs to recover from the high intensity exercise is tested. For this, nine male athletes are used as subjects and were tested for the mean and maximum power and heart rate through Wingate anaerobic test. The difference in maximum and mean power in succeeding Wingate anaerobic test was not observed, however a lower fatigue rate was observed. Thus, this research demonstrates that there is no correlation between wingate anaerobic test and lower maximal power.
Ayalon A, Inbar O and Bar-Or O. (1974). Relationships among measurements of explosive strength and anaerobic power. IV, pp. 527-32.
This research paper tests the correlation between the strength measurement and the anaerobic power through Wingate anaerobic test. This research paper establishes the positive correlation between the lower maximal power and strength and wingate anaerobic test.
McCartney N, Heigenhauser GJ and Jones NL. (1983). Power output and fatigue of human muscle in maximal cycling exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology , 1 (1), pp. 218-24.
This research paper tested the torque-velocity maximal relationship during short-period maximal exercise through cycling and also tested for the fatigue. This established the positive relation between the cycling exercise and the lower maximal power.
S., G. (1995, Jan). Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans. Sports Medicine , 19 (1), pp. 32-42.
This paper discusses in detail the test developed by Wingate institute. The test involved 30 second maximal cycle effort and test the subjects for the effect of anaerobic exercise on the maximal lower power. The paper also specifies that the optimum duration of the Wingate anaerobic cycle test is 30 seconds; however some test involves 10 second duration experiment also.
Dotan R and Bar-Or O. (1983). Load optimization for the Wingate Anaerobic Test. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology , 51 (3), pp. 409-17.
In this study, the optimal loads for the Wingate anaerobic test is tested and defined for achieving maximal output of power or power outputs. This study involves the 30 second Wingate anaerobic cycle test. The optimal loads are identified to be a function of the magnitude of power output and vary for men and women.