Elements Of Moral And Social Cognition Course Work

Published: 2021-06-22 00:43:26
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Category: Family, Thinking, Sociology, Life, Parents, Psychology, Ethics

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22nd July, 2011
Outline
1. Important Factors Influencing Moral Cognition.
2. Prediction of changes in social cognition across the lifespan.
3. Prediction of lifelong interaction styles influenced by parenting behaviors and attachment opportunities in infancy.
4. Explanation of friendships and family relationships changes over one’s lifespan.
5 Important Characteristics of a Healthy Family Life.
Abstract
Cognition has been summarized by many schools of thought in psychology to be adaptations to the moral as well as social environments within the home and wider society from a mental perspective called the mind. It is believed to have begun from birth and further research shows where there could have been some infiltrations prior to it. Subsequently, there are important factors influencing moral cognition. By integrating the paradigm of moral cognition inevitably, predictions regarding changes in social cognition across lifespan can be measured. Also, theorists have predicted lifelong interaction styles influenced by parenting behaviors and attachment opportunities in infancy. This is assumed to have been derived from the establishment of moral and social cognition conceptions. It is the writer’s intention to embrace these elements of moral and social cognition to further explain friendships and family relationship changes over one’s lifespan; eventually offering the reader an analysis of important characteristics in maintaining a healthy family life.
Important Factors Influencing Moral Cognition.
As it pertains to this discussion in explaining the important factors influencing moral cognition reference must be made to the ‘Theory of Mind.’ Someone said that out of the mind pours issues of life, and it is true that while cognitive centers are found in the brain, the mind articulates perceptions of morality or immorality from time to time.
Important factors responsible for this in relation to the theory are ways in which adults and siblings interact with infants who according to Freud have no moral conscience since the Id is dominant. (Tauber, 2010). Children learn what they see and not so much what they hear. Really, joint attention; pretend play; imitation and emotional understanding (Sigelman, 2011) are key elements responsible for moral cognition when taken from the assumptions projected by “Theory of Mind.”
Joint attention is acknowledged by collaborating efforts to achieve common goals as is reinforced when a parent laughs with an infant and expects a response of jubilation. The common goal is jubilation and the joint focus is on laughing. Alternatively, pretend play helps the recognition of how rules are designed and boundaries established during an interaction. Here is where the child begins to decipher what are acceptable and unacceptable rules of the pretend play regime.
Similarly, the phase of imitation is initiated through which emotional understanding as an element of moral cognition emerges. This occurs in response to the infant or toddler‘s feelings while imitating significant others in the home and immediate social environment. Importantly, from imitations feelings out-pour. They can either be positive or negative based on the interpretation of mind. Together these two features clasp hands in creating moral cognition.
Prediction of changes in social cognition across the lifespan
Since moral cognition is greatly influenced by joint attention; pretend play; imitation and emotional understanding (Sigelman, 2011) there is no doubt that changes are eminent in social cognition across one’s life span. With further reference to ‘Theory of mind,’ as the brain develops, a capacity to cooperate, engage in playing games; model and appropriate feelings are skillfully developed.
As an infant, social cognition is limited to the home environment consisting of parents and siblings, mainly. However, as a child becomes part of a pres-school culture; church family, elementary school; middle school; high school; college; employee; employer and the list could go on the mind transcends barriers of age depicted within each life span to embrace the specific cognitive development for that period.
Hence, Erickson’s prediction in his psychosocial stages model is pertinent to this evaluation. The sages worth recalling are, ‘ Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust; Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame; Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt; School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion; Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption and Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair.’ (Erickson, 1968). Distinctively, this life span theory predicts the inevitable course of cognition influenced by joint attention; pretend play; imitation and emotional understanding. (Sigelman, 2011).
Prediction of lifelong interaction styles influenced by
parenting behaviors and attachment opportunities in infancy
Evidently, life long interaction styles emerge from parenting behaviors and the opportunities afforded infants to bond during infancy and early childhood. As such, the extent to which attachment occurs can be predicted from four paradigms of development. First there is undiscriminating responsiveness (to 3 mo); secondly; discriminating responsiveness (3 mo to 6 mo); thirdly, true attachment (starting at 6 or 7 months) and fourthly goal-corrected partnership (starting at 3 yrs). (Sigelman, 2011).
Theoretical assumptions are that this last stage remains with a child throughout life being the basis by which relationship are sustained or disintegrate. Precisely, the propositions are that secure attachment in infancy is results in a “secure working model.” The personality development in these infants foster intimacy, trust, higher quality of romantic relationships and great self esteem. Studies have also proven that as adults they are highly motivated achievers who enjoy their vocation; being with people and becoming parents open for attachment by children generally. (Sigelman, 2011).
Explanation of friendships and family relationships changes over one’s lifespan
Life span changes in family and friendship as it inter-relates with cognition encompasses a number of elements. These stretch from roles which are undertaken at different stages within the life span; inevitable changes in physical condition initiated by health issues; changes in social status as well as gradual decline of interest in society and culture.
Depending on the attachment potential, childhood friendships may persist into adulthood moving towards Erickson’s stage of despair. The sustenance however, largely depends on life style since friends serve different purposes in one’s social interaction. As, values are modified some friendships may no longer be compatible across life span.
With reference to family relationship the obvious shift comes with the roles of parent, adjusting to grandparent. Another almighty adjustment is when adolescent children are part of the home. The gradual eminent change from child to adolescent with the industry an inferiority issues begin to splurge the personality.
Sometimes, this can create havoc in the home environment, especially, when fidelity is challenged. The adolescent experiments and often does not obey parental instructions any longer. Thus, changes in family culture and structure occur to accommodate this temporary dysfunction.
Important Characteristics of a Healthy Family Life
Important characteristics of a healthy family life can be summarized by one word, ‘stability’ from which all other supporting factors emerge. Stability, in relation to moral and social cognition means (if a nuclear family structure) a responsible father who is a provider. Also, it is a nurturing mother who allowed appropriate attachment of infants. Her children are developing wholesome relationships with siblings at home, peers and adults in the community.
A bond of friendship circulates among father, mother and children. In cases of extended family unions inclusive of relatives and grand parents it is important that everyone share socio-economic responsibility to enhance the image of the structure. Bills must be paid as well as emotional support ought to be shared during stressful situations. Precisely, stability means economic security, acceptable social integration and a clear moral conscience.
References
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Sigelman, C. (2011). Life- Span Human Development. America: Wadsworth.
Tauber, A. (2010). Freud, the Reluctant Philosopher. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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